Truman Hartshorn PhD, professor emeritus Georgia State University, Atlanta GA, will address the black residential spaces in the cities which traditionally existed as a “city within a city,” sometimes called a ghetto space. Many institutional, economic, and governmental discriminatory practices meted out by the white population maintained the system. Among the actors controlling the process have been realtors, bankers, zoning practices, and government policies. Although the trend to strike down restrictive housing policies gained momentum after World War II, the legacy remains. Many unwritten tools continue to be used to discriminate against black families. Dr. Hartshorn is a native of Central New York and received his doctorate from the University of Iowa. After faculty positions in Illinois and Florida, Hartshorn served 35 years at Georgia State University and authored several publications on urban and economic geography. Dr. Hartshorn is on the NAHOF Cabinet of Freedom, having served as secretary for ten years, and is currently the president of Madison County Tourism.